Learning Objectives Checkpoints

1. List five technologies that are fueling the digital revolution.

a. computers b. Internet c. cell-phones d. calculators e. personal digital assistants

2. Define convergence and provide examples of at least five devices that are converging.

Convergence happens when two or more popular technologies are merged into one device. Examples of this are camera-cellphones, internet-capable videogame consoles, mp3 player-phones, Television sets with built in DVD players and clocks, laptops with built-in web-cameras and microphones.

3. Describe at least two social, political, and economic effects of the digital revolution.

a. Globalazation due to the internet has provided the ability for international trade on a personal level.
b. Online social networks allow for open discussion of personal, political, and social issues.
c. Intellectual property rights have been redefined due to ease of access of "free" music and other content. Because of this, record companies, for example, have had to rework a decades-old business model.

4. Draw a diagram to explain how a computer makes use of input, processing, storage, memory, output, and stored procedure.

5. Describe the difference between system software, an operating system, application software, and a computer program.

System software are things such as an operating sysytem or utility software, that help the computer carry out essential operating tasks.

The operating system is the software that controls the use of its hardware resources, such as memory and disk storage space (also called OS).

Application Software - Computer programs that help you perform a specific task such as word processing. Also called application programs, applications , or programs

Computer Program - A detailed set of instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task

These all work together but are still different in the fact that they all perform a specific, individual task to aid one another.

6. List, briefly describe, and rank (in terms of computing capacity) the characteristics of each computer category described in Section B of this chapter.
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Supercomputers- Rank the highest because of their speed, supercomputers can tackle complex tasks and compute-intensive problems that just would not be practical for other computers. Plus they break codes and model worldwide weather system.Mainframe computer- Ranks next to the supercomputer it is large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users. They are mostly used by business or governments. Provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data.
Personal computer- Comes in third it is a micro-processor- based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual.
PDA and Smart Phones- Come in fourth these devices incorporate many computer characteristics. They accept input produce output, process data, and include storage capabilities.
Microcontroller- comes in fifth it is a special purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls. It is sometimes called a computer on a chip because it includes many of the elements common to computers.
Videogame console- Rank last they contain microprocessors they have many characteristics of a computer such as keyboards, DVD players, internet access, but they do not have the memory storage like a computer does.

7. List the characteristics that smart phones, PDAs, and portable media players have in common with personal computers, and list factors by which they differ.

Have in common: e-mail, web, removable storage, music player, software option, maps, many computer characteristics, qwerty keyboards, appointment book. How they differ: camera, GPS, lightweight, can put in pocket, touchscreen, limited programmabitity

8. Define the term microcontroller and provide three examples of devices in which they are found.

It is a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into a machine it controls.
1. Refrigerator/Freezer
2. GPS
3. Cell Phone

9. Explain the technical difference between data and information.

Data is digital or analog. Data ( represents facts , objects, and ideas) is used by machines and informations is used by humans. Data become information when its presented in a format that people can understand and use.

10. Provide three examples of digital devices and three examples of analog devices.
Analog: Dimmer switch, volume on old stereo, thermostat
Digital: IPhone, Blackberry, IPods

11. List the ASCII representation for "B," the binary representation for 18; draw a stepped waveform showing a digital sound; and draw a diagram showing how color is represented in a graphic. Binary code for 18 is 00110001 00111000. ASCII representation for B is 01000010.

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12. List and define all the chapter terms, such as bit, byte, and kibibyte that pertain to quantifying data.

byte- is a group of 8 bits and is usually abbreviated as an uppercase B
kilobit- kilo precisely 1,024 bits also abbreviated Kb or Kbit
kilobyte- kilo precisely 1,024 bytes also abbreviated KB or Kbyte
megabit- or Mb or Mbit is 1,048,576 bits
megabyte- or MB or MByte is 1,048,576 bytes
gigabit- or Gb or Gbit is approximately one billion bits
gigabyte- or GB or GByte is one billion bytes. Gigabytes are typically used to refer to storage capacity

13. Use the terms integrated circuits, microprocessor, and system board in a meaningful sentence.

Integrated circuits can be used for microprocessors, memory, and support circuitry, the system board houses all essential chips.

14. Describe how compilers and interpreters work with high level programming languages, source code, and object code.

Compilers and interpreters convert and execute all statements in a program into human-readable versions of the program while the program is running.

15. Make a storyboard showing how a microprocessor's ALU would add the numbers 2 and 8.

ALU is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations, and the control unit fetches each instruction. The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed. As shown:
Control unit
Register 2
Register 8

16. Explain how hackers use dictionary and brute force attacks.

Dictionary hackers guess your password by stepping through a dictionary that contains thousands of the most commonly used passwords. Password dictionarys can be found on a black hat site and packaged with password-cracking software.Brute force attack also uses password cracking software but is in the range of much more extensive soft ware than dictionary attack,this exhaust all possibility ofcombination of letters and letters of decypt a password the attack can run on for days even weeks.

17. Provide examples of five secure passwords and five passwords that might be easy to crack.

Answer: Five unsecure passwords: "Your name" (Ex. KurtisEmery123), "Your Social Security number" (Ex. 786783514), "Your phone number" (Ex. 5555555555), "Foreign Words" (Ex. Hola), "Words in a dictionary" (Ex. Anything).

5 passwords that are secure (use combinations of letters, numbers and symbols!)