8 ways databases are used:
1. To collect and store data, such as inventory for a business.
2. To update data, like change of address in a payroll database.
3. To organize and output data, an example being a mailing list organized by zip code.
4. To distribute data. An example is a utility company mailing out a billing statement.
5. To easily find data. For example, a pharmacy may have the medical data of each of its customers on a database.
6. To analyze data, or data mine. Advertisers often use data mining to track the viewing habits of people on the internet and market to them accordingly.
7. To track data. The census bureau uses a data base to track demographic trends.
8. To track relationships between data sets.. Databases can be used to track the associations between data that is stored in different types of records.

2. Create a descriptive example that would help explain the concepts of data mining, data warehouses, predictive analytics, and OLAP to an average adult who has no technical expertise.

Data Mining – This is when the information in a database is gone over to find links to other useful information in a database.
Data Warehouses – A place where multiple forms of data from separate databases are stored
Predictive Analytics – Tries to find probabilities and trends in data. For example, can be used to predict customer behavior.
OLAP – Online Analytical Processing – Helps provide accurate, timely, and relevant information to be used by whomever desires.


3. Define basic databse terminology, such as fields, records, record types, record occurences, and cardinality.
1. Fields- contains the smallest unit of meaningful information.

2. Records- refers to a collection of data fields.

3. Record Types- a template for a record.

4. Record Ocurrences- a record that contains data.

5. Cardinality- refers to the number of associations that can exist between two record types.

5. Describe flat files and six other databse models. Give examples that illustrate each model.
Flat file- the simplest model for storing data that consists of a single, two-dimensional table of data elements.
Hierarchical database- allows one -to -one and one- to -many relationships. Ex. Windows uses a hierarchical database to store Registry data that keeps track of the software and hardware configuration of your PC
Networked database- allows many-to-many relationships as well as one-to-many relationships between records types. Ex.
Relational database-stores data in a collection of related tables. Ex. When music shops use six tables to store data.
Dimensional database- sometimes referred to as a multidimensional database, organizes relationships over three or more dimensions. Ex. When a data cube has three dimensions –months, states, and book categories
Object database-stores data as objects. Ex. Music shop has to keep track of objects that represent customer orders.
Object-relational database- is used to describe a variety of technologies that combine object-oriented and relational concepts. Ex.


6. Explain the capabilities of carious data mandagement tolls, such as commercial applications, word processing software, spreadsheet software, custom data management software, and database management software.
Commercial database software promotes data independence because a generic set of programs for searching and printing can be used on any set of data.

Word processing software easy: uses an interface familiar to most users. Best for simple flat files, such as mailing lists.

Spreadsheet software : easy uses an interface familiar to most users. Best for simple flat files that involve calculations.

Custom software: The programming can be difficult, but the final result may be easy to use. Very versatile because programs can be tailored to any data.

Database software: High-end database software often has a steep learning curve. High-end packages provide excellent versatility.

7. Use diagrams to explain different ways of providing Web access to the data in a database.
Static web publishing: is a simple way to display the data in a database by converting a database report into an HTML document, which can be displayed as a web page by a browser. Static publishing provides extremely limited access to the database.
Dynamic Web publishing: relies on a program or script, referred to as a server-side program that resides on a web server and acts as an intermediary between your browser and a DBMS.


8. Provide five examples of data you would store in real, integer, text, logical, date, memo, BLOB, and computed fields.
Real Data Type – Examples: Price, GPA, Percentage, Electric Bill Usage kilowatt hour, Radio Station frequency
Integer Data Type – Examples: Quantity, repetitions, rankings, temperature, Page Number
Date Data Type – Airline flight date, Creation date, Expiration date, Due date, Appointment date
Text Data Type – Zip Code, Name, Social Security Number, Item Number, Telephone Number
Memo Data Type – Comment Card, memo note on checks, Measurement specs, directions, internal note
Logical Data Type – True/False field, Yes, No field, Color Black/White, On/Off, UP/Down
BLOB (binary large object) – MP3 Music track, photos, Blueprint, Multimedia object, diagrams
Computed Fields - Amount of Savings, Value, Discount Price, Percentage off, Shipping Price



9. List the techniques that a databse designer can use to reduce data entry errors.
Case sensitive entries - upper and lower case
field format - can specify what the data is supposed to look like and if entered in wrong format the database rejects the entry
field validation rule - specification set up to filter data entered in a particular field
limit data entry to the items on a specified list
lookup routines - validates an entry by searching for the same data in a file or database

11. Using your own examples, explain the differences between sorting and indexing.
An example of sorting would not be changing the content of the data but to change the order such as putting scores or game stats from highest to lowest.Another example of sorting would be to put your recent grocery trips from lowest to highest amount of money you spent. An example of indexing would be to putmusic or books in alpahbetical or numerical order. The books would be indexed by call number. The music could also be indexed by call number if it was in a library. Music can also be so indexed alphabetically in a library and so can books.

12. Describe how a database report templates work. List five principles for creating effective report templates.

Report templates contain the outline or general sepecifications for a report, including such elements as the report title, fields to include, fields to subtotal or total, and report format specifications. The template does not, however, contain data from the database. Data is merged into the template when you actually run a report. When a report is actually produced, it is based on the data currently contained in the database table.

Five principles for creating effective reports
  1. Supply only the information required.
  2. Present information in a usable format.
  3. Information should be timely.
  4. Information should be presented in a clear, unambiguous format and include necessary titles, page numbers, dates, labels, and column headings.
  5. Present information in the format most appropriate for the audience.

14. Explain the extent to which encryption, user privileges, and audits can secure a databse.

Encryption does not really secure the database. It is more of a tool that makes the data unreadable/unintelligible when it is lost or stolen.
User Privileges – delineate what activities a user can perform within a database. IE – read only access.
Audits – monitors and records whoever accesses the database and can be used to track what is being done by those user/s with the records


16. List the steps you can take to protect your privacy and identity when working with databases.

1. Have passwords and password managers
2. Antivirus software is running and up-to-date
3. Never divulge social security or personal information
4. Look for the opt-out button
5. Be cautious of free services
6. Use personal firewall and pop-up blocker